Escultura de São Bartolomeu, que aparece carregando a sua própria pele, no Interior da Catedral de Milão.
Statue of St. Bartholomew in the Duomo di Milano,
Statue of St. Bartholomew, with own skin, by Marco d’Agrate, placed in the Duomo di Milano in 1562.
In front of the former mausoleum is the most renowned work of art of the cathedral, the St. Bartholomew statue by Marco D’Agrate.
Saint Bartholomew was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bartholomew (Greek: Βαρθολομαίος, transliterated "Vartholomeos") comes from the Aramaic bar-Tôlmay (תולמי-בר), meaning son of Tolmay (Ptolemy) or son of the furrows (perhaps a ploughman). Many have, based on this meaning, assumed it was not a given name, but a family name.
The festival of St Bartholomew is celebrated on August 24 in the western Church and on June 11 in the Eastern churches. The Armenian Apostolic Church honours Saint Bartholomew, along with Saint Thaddeus as their patron saint. The Coptic Church remembers him on January 1. The festival in August has been a traditional occasion for markets and fairs; such a fair serves as the scene for Bartholomew Fair, a play by Ben Jonson.
Of the many miracles performed by St. Bartholomew before and after his death, two very popular ones are known by the townfolk of the small island of Lipari. When St. Bartholomew’s body was found off the shore, the Bishop of Lipari ordered many men to take the body to the Cathedral. When this failed due to its extreme weight, the Bishop then sent out the children. The children easily brought the body ashore.
The people of Lipari celebrated his feast day annually. The tradition of the people was to take the solid silver and gold statue from inside the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew and carry it through the town. When taking the statue down the hill towards the town, it suddenly got very heavy and had to be set down. When the men carrying the statue regained their strength they lifted it a second time. After another few seconds, it got even heavier. They set it down and attempted once more to pick it up. They managed to lift it but had to put it down one last time. Within seconds, the walls further downhill collapsed. If the statue had been able to be lifted, all of the townspeople would have been killed.
Statue of St. Bartholomew, with own skin, by Marco d’Agrate, placed in the Duomo di Milano in 1562.
During World War II, the Fascist regime looked for ways to finance their activities. The order was given to take the silver statue of Saint Bartholomew and melt it down. The statue was weighed and it was found to be only several ounces. It was returned to its place in the Cathedral in Lipari. In reality, the statue is made from many pounds of silver and it is considered a miracle that it was not melted down.
St. Bartholomew is credited with many other miracles having to do with the weight of objects.
The sixth-century writer in Constantinople, Theodorus Lector, averred that ca 507 the Emperor Anastasius gave the body of Bartholomew to the city of Dura-Europos, which he had recently founded (actually re-founded). The existence of relics at Lipari, a small island off the coast of Sicily, in the part of Italy controlled from Constantinople, was explained by Gregory of Tours by his body having miraculously washed there: a large piece of his skin and many bones that were kept in the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew the Apostle, Lipari, were translated to Beneventum in 803, and to Rome in 983 by Holy Roman Emperor Otto II, at the basilica of San Bartolomeo all’Isola. In time, the church here inherited an old pagan medical center. This association with medicine in course of time caused Bartholomew’s name to become associated with medicine and hospitals. Some of Bartholomew’s skull was transferred to Frankfurt, while an arm is venerated in Canterbury Cathedral today.
A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Milan Cathedral (Italian: Duomo di Milano; Milanese: Domm de Milan) is the cathedral church of Milan in Lombardy, northern Italy. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, currently Cardinal Dionigi Tettamanzi.
Milan’s layout, with streets either radiating from the Duomo or circling it, reveals that the Duomo occupies the most central site in Roman Mediolanum, that of the public basilica facing the forum. Saint Ambrose’s ‘New Basilica’ was built on this site at the beginning of the 5th century, with an adjoining basilica added in 836. When a fire damaged both buildings in 1075, they were rebuilt as the Duomo.
Um texto, em português, do Site "Fatos e fotos de viagens", que pode ser visto no endereço interata.squarespace.com/jornal-de-viagem/2006/11/27/duom…
In 1386 archbishop Antonio da Saluzzo began construction in a rayonnant Late Gothic style more typically French than Italian. Construction coincided with the accession to power in Milan of the archbishop’s cousin Gian Galeazzo Visconti, and was meant as a reward to the noble and working classes which had been suppressed by his tyrannical Visconti predecessor Barnabò. Before actual work began, three main buildings were demolished: the palace of the Archbishop, the Ordinari Palace and the Baptistry of ‘St. Stephen at the Spring’, while the old church of Sta. Maria Maggiore was exploited as a stone quarry. Enthusiasm for the immense new building soon spread among the population, and the shrewd Gian Galeazzo, together with his cousin the archbishop, collected large donations for the work-in-progress. The construction program was strictly regulated under the "Fabbrica del Duomo", which had 300 employees led by first chief engineer Simone da Orsenigo. Galeazzo gave the Fabbrica exclusive use of the marble from the Candoglia quarry and exempted it from taxes.
In 1389 a French chief engineer, Nicolas de Bonaventure, was appointed, adding to the church its strong Gothic imprint. Ten years later another French architect, Jean Mignot, was called from Paris to judge and improve upon the work done, as the masons needed new technical aid to lift stones to an unprecedented height. Mignot declared all the work done up till then as in pericolo di ruina ("peril of ruin"), as it had been done sine scienzia ("without science"). In the following years Mignot’s forecasts proved untrue, but anyway they spurred Galeazzo’s engineers to improve their instruments and techniques. Work proceeded quickly, and at the death of Gian Galeazzo in 1402, almost half the cathedral was complete. Construction, however, stalled almost totally until 1480, due to lack of money and ideas: the most notable works of this period were the tombs of Marco Carelli and Pope Martin V (1424) and the windows of the apse (1470s), of which those extant portray St. John the Evangelist, by Cristoforo de’ Mottis, and Saint Eligius and San John of Damascus, both by Niccolò da Varallo. In 1452, under Francesco Sforza, the nave and the aisles were completed up to the sixth bay.
In 1500-1510, under Ludovico Sforza, the octagonal cupola was completed, and decorated in the interior with four series of fifteen statues each, portraying saints, prophets, sibyls and other characters of the Bible. The exterior long remained without any decoration, except for the Guglietto dell’Amadeo ("Amadeo’s Little Spire"), constructed 1507-1510. This is a Renaissance masterwork which nevertheless harmonized well with the general Gothic appearance of the church.
The famous "Madunina" atop the main spire of the cathedral, a baroque gilded bronze artwork.
During the subsequent Spanish domination, the new church proved usable, even though the interior remained largely unfinished, and some bays of the nave and the transepts were still missing. In 1552 Giacomo Antegnati was commissioned to build a large organ for the north side of the choir, and Giuseppe Meda provided four of the sixteen pales which were to decorate the altar area (the program was completed by Federico Borromeo). In 1562 Marco d’ Lopez’s St. Bartholomew and the famous Trivulzio candelabrum (12th century) were added.
After the accession of the ambitious Carlo Borromeo to the archbishop’s throne, all lay monuments were removed from the Duomo. These included the tombs of Giovanni, Barnabò and Filippo Maria Visconti, Francesco and his wife Bianca, Galeazzo Maria and Lodovico Sforza, which were brought to unknown destinations. However, Borromeo’s main intervention was the appointment, in 1571, of Pellegrino Pellegrini as chief engineer— a contentious move, since to appoint Pellegrino, who was not a lay brother of the duomo, required a revision of the Fabbrica’s statutes.
Borromeo and Pellegrino strove for a new, Renaissance appearance for the cathedral, that would emphasise its Roman / Italian nature, and subdue the Gothic style, which was now seen as foreign. As the façade still was largely incomplete, Pellegrini designed a "Roman" style one, with columns, obelisks and a large tympanum. When Pellegrini’s design was revealed, a competition for the design of the facade was announced, and this elicited nearly a dozen entries, including by Antonio Barca .
This design was never carried out, but the interior decoration continued: in 1575-1585 the presbytery was rebuilt, while new altars and the baptistry were added in the nave.
Wooden choirstalls were constructed by 1614 for the main altar by Francesco Brambilla.
In 1577 Borromeo finally consecrated the whole edifice as a new church, distinct from the old Santa Maria Maggiore and Santa Tecla (which had been unified in 1549 after heavy disputes).
At the beginning of the 17th century Federico Borromeo had the foundations of the new façade laid by Francesco Maria Richini and Fabio Mangone. Work continued until 1638 with the construction of five portals and two middle windows. In 1649, however, the new chief architect Carlo Buzzi introduced a striking revolution: the façade was to revert to original Gothic style, including the already finished details within big Gothic pilasters and two giant belfries. Other designs were provided by, among others, Filippo Juvarra (1733) and Luigi Vanvitelli (1745), but all remained unapplied. In 1682 the façade of Santa Maria Maggiore was demolished and the cathedral’s roof covering completed.
The ultimate facade with its striking rosy marble revetment
In 1762 one of the main features of the cathedral, the Madonnina’s spire, was erected at the dizzying height of 108.5 m. The spire was designed by Francesco Croce and sports at the top a famous polychrome Madonnina statue, designed by Giuseppe Perego that befits the original stature of the cathedral. Given Milan’s notoriously damp and foggy climate, the Milanese consider it a fair-weather day when the Madonnina is visible from a distance, as it is so often covered by mist.
On May 20, 1805, Napoleon Bonaparte, about to be crowned King of Italy, ordered the façade to be finished. In his enthusiasm, he assured that all expenses would fall to the French treasurer, who would reimburse the Fabbrica for the real estate it had to sell. Even though this reimbursement was never paid, it still meant that finally, within only seven years, the Cathedral had its façade completed. The new architect, Francesco Soave, largely followed Buzzi’s project, adding some neo-Gothic details to the upper windows. As a form of thanksgiving, a statue of Napoleon was placed at the top of one of the spires.
In the following years, most of the missing arches and spires were constructed. The statues on the southern wall were also finished, while in 1829-1858, new stained glass windows replaced the old ones, though with less aesthetically significant results. The last details of the cathedral were finished only in the 20th century: the last gate was inaugurated on January 6, 1965. This date is considered the very end of a process which had proceeded for generations, although even now, some uncarved blocks remain to be completed as statues. The Duomo’s main facade is under renovation as of 2007; canvas-covered scaffolding obscures most of the facade.
he cathedral of Milano is often described as one of the greatest churches in the world. The ground plan is of a nave with 5 aisles, crossed by a transept and then followed by choir and apsis. The height of the nave is about 45 meters, the highest Gothic vaults of a complete church (less than the 48 meters of Beauvais Cathedral that was never completed).
The roof is open to tourists (for a fee), which allows many a close-up view of some spectacular sculpture that would otherwise be unappreciated. The roof of the cathedral is renowned for the forest of openwork pinnacles and spires, sitting upon delicate flying buttresses.
The cathedral’s five wide naves, divided by forty pillars, are reflected in the hierarchic openings of the facade. Even the transepts have aisles. The nave columns are 24.5 metres (80 ft) high, and the apsidal windows are 20.7 x 8.5 metres (68 x 28 feet). The huge building is of brick construction, faced with marble from the quarries which Gian Galeazzo Visconti donated in perpetuity to the cathedral chapter. Its maintenance and repairs are very complicated.
The interior of the cathedral includes a huge number of monuments and artworks. These include:
* The Archbishop Alberto da Intimiano’s sarcophagus, which is overlooked by a Crucifix in copper laminae (a replica).
* The sarcophagi of the archbishops Ottone Visconti and Giovanni Visconti, created by a Campionese master in the 14th century.
* The sarcophagus of Marco Carelli, who donated 35,000 ducati to accelerate the construction of the cathedral.
* The three magnificent altars by Pellegrino Pellegrini, which include the notable Federico Zuccari’s Visit of St. Peter to St. Agatha jailed.
* In the right transept, the monument to Gian Giacomo Medici di Marignano, called "Medeghino", by Leone Leoni, and the adjacent Renaissance marble altar, decorated with gilt bronze statues.
* In front of the former mausoleum is the most renowned work of art of the cathedral, the St. Bartholomew statue by Marco D’Agrate.
* The presbytery is a late Renaissance masterpiece composing a choir, a Temple by Pellegrini, two pulpits with giant telamones covered in copper and bronze, and two large organs. Around the choir the two sacristies’ portals, some frescoes and a fifteenth-century statue of Martin V by Jacopino da Tradate) can be seen.
* The transepts house the Trivulzio Candelabrum, which is in two pieces. The base (attributed to Nicolas of Verdun, 12th century), characterized by a fantastic ensemble of vines, vegetables and imaginary animals; and the stem, of the mid-16th century.
* In the left aisle, the Arcimboldi monument by Alessi and Romanesque figures depicting the Apostles in red marble and the neo-Classic baptistry by Pellegrini.
* A small red light bulb in the dome above the apse marks the spot where one of the nails from the Crucifixion of Christ has been placed.
* In November-December, in the days surrounding the birthdate of the San Carlo Borromeo, a series of large canvases, the Quadroni are exhibited along the nave.
DUOMO – A Catedral de Milão
O Duomo é apenas mais um dos fabulosos exemplos de arquitetura e monumentalidade dirigida ao culto ao divino entre tantas outras catedrais construídas na Europa durante a Idade Média, entre os séculos 9 e 12.
Dizem que o Duomo foi projetado pelo pintor, escultor, arquiteto, engenheiro, cientista e inventor italiano Leonardo da Vinci, nascido em Vinci e falecido em Amboise, na França.
Igrejas como as de Chartres , Amiens e Notre Dame de Paris (França), Sevilha e Santiago de Compostela (Espanha), Colônia (Alemanha) e o Duomo de Milão (Itália) são o exemplo máximo do estilo gótico — caracterizado pelo uso das ogivas (cruzamento de arcos), que possibilitavam a construção de altas estruturas. No apogeu do fervor católico, elas foram projetadas usando medidas que reproduziam as proporções do corpo humano.
Situado no centro da cidade , o Duomo é o marco zero geográfico da cidade e ponto de partida para se conhecer a cidade. Muitas de suas atrações estão nas proximidades ou vizinhanças.
Pode-se visitar internamente a igreja e seu telhado. Todos os dias, de 7 às19h de junho a setembro, e de 9 às 16h, de outubro a maio. Para ingressar na igreja nada se paga, mas para subir ao seu telhado paga-se o preço de 4 Euros, por elevador.
Duomo é uma gigantesca igreja catedral, uma das maiores em estilo gótico em todo o mundo, em dimensões, pois tem cerca de 160 m de comprimento por 92 de largura. Suas dimensões representam aquilo que mais impressiona e provoca admiração a quem a visita, num primeiro olhar.
igreja começou a ser construída no Século 14 mas só foi concluída 500 (!!) anos depois.
Uma das coisas mais interessantes a ser fazer em toda Milão é visitar o telhado do Duomo, todo em placas de mármore, da mesma pedra de sua fachada, suas esculturas (santos, gárgulas e agulhas) e de onde se tem uma bela vista de toda a cidade.
A fachada do Duomo não tem apenas um estilo arquitetônico: eles vão do gótico ao renascentista, com alguns elementos neoclássicos.
Ainda no exterior, antes de entrar na igreja, não deixe de observar o rendilhado que envolve as janelas-vitrais e também as belíssimas e enormes portas de bronze, nas quais estão esculturas em baixos e altos-relevos que mostram cenas da história da cidade.
O que mais impressiona no interior é a altura dos enormes pilares góticos que suportam o telhado de toda a igreja e que delimitam suas naves laterais, secundárias e principal, além do altar-mór. Elas enquadram os vitrais igualmente gigantescos e belíssimos.
O interior não impressiona tanto quanto o exterior, ainda que seja solene, grandioso e tenha cinco naves e 52 gigantescas colunas de pedra.
Também o maravilhoso piso de mármore de três ou quatro tonalidades, que formam belos desenhos, dão, na nave central, a verdadeira impressão das dimensões desta fabulosa igreja. Observe o piso (de preferência ajoelhado nele) posisionando-se de costas para o altar-mór e olhando para o portão principal.
Em Milão quase tudo gira ao redor do Duomo, a Catedral de Milão, a terceira maior igreja da cristandade depois da Basílica de São Pedro, em Roma, e da Catedral de Sevilha.
No telhado as centenas de agulhas altíssimas, de arcos e gárgulas, estátuas e cariátides esculpidos em mármore impressionam tanto quanto sua fachada, vista do nível da rua. A mais magestosa das imagens é a estatua dourada da Madonnina do Perego, situada no topo da agulha maior, onde foi colocada em 1744.
Uma visita ao seu telhado dá-nos a dimensão exata da grandiosidade do trabalho de construção desta monumental escultura e nos leva a imaginar o quão difícil deve ter sido, compreendendo-se porque ela iniciou-se em 1386 e terminou em 1887!
O Duomo di Milano é um monumento símbolo do patrimônio Lombardo, dedicado à Santa Maria Nascente e situado na praça central da cidade de Milão, Itália. É uma das mais célebres e complexas construções em estilo Gótico do mundo.
Leia mais sobre a catedral de Milão no endereço www.maconaria.net/portal/index.php?view=article&catid…
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